• The Libyan Crisis: A Case of Failed Collective Security
    Djallil Lounnas

    On April 4, 2019, General Khalifa Haftar, commander of the Libyan National Army (LNA) and the strongman of the Al Bayda government, a Libyan faction associated with the “Tobruk Parliament,” launched an assault on the capital, Tripoli, in a final b


Iran after Khamenei: Prospects for Political Change
Saeid Golkar

In 2018, after the suppression of the Green Movement following the disputed presidential election of 2009, Iran witnessed another wave of uprisings.

Russia in Syria: An Unequivocal Return to the Middle East?
Robert Mason

This article argues that President Putin's securitization agenda stems from the second Chechen War and is far more pragmatic concerning Russian engagement in the Middle East than former Soviet policies. 

Turkey and Syria: When "Soft Power" Turned Hard
Jeremy Salt

The onset of the so-called Arab Spring in late 2010 took governments around the world by surprise, and Turkey's Justice and Development Party (Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi, AKP) government was no exception.