The Kurds, who are often referred to as the world's "largest stateless" nation, have rebelled numerous times in the past century against repressive and assimilationist policies in four key Middle Eastern states: Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria.
Edward Erickson is a professor of military history at the U.S. Marine Corps University. He retired from a long and distinguished army career that included service in senior positions in Europe and the Middle East, in particular Turkey and Iraq.
In his 2016 book The New Arab Wars: Uprisings and Anarchy in the Middle East, George Washington University political-science professor Marc Lynch notes, "This book has been painful to write" (p. 255).
Turkish voters have approved — by a thin margin — constitutional changes transforming Turkey’s government into a presidential system. The vote is seen as an endorsement for Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who now may occupy the powerful seat of the presidency until 2029.
Relations between Turkey and the EU have been on a downward trend for some time.