The following is an edited transcript of the 110th in a series of Capitol Hill conferences convened by the Middle East Policy Council. The event took place on October 21, 2022, via Zoom, with Council President Richard J. Schmierer moderating.
Over the past four decades, the United States has managed its foreign policy toward Iran through a combination of sanctions, diplomatic incentives, and threats of military intervention. This approach has come down to two choices: war or sanctions. Clearly, sanctions have deprived Iran of access to foreign investment in its oil and energy sectors, caused many oil companies to withdraw from Iran, and dramatically reduced Iran's oil revenue. However, sanctions have had a more damaging effect on ordinary people than on the targeted leaders of the country.
In July 2015, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) addressed the international community's concerns about Iran's nuclear program. The United States and the other P5+1 countries (the permanent members of the UN Security Council, plus Germany) agreed to lift the nuclear-related economic and financial sanctions they had imposed.
This article investigates whether sanctions have changed or influenced Iran's trade patterns, focusing on neighboring countries. The study concentrates first on the United Arab Emirates (UAE), considered Iran's main regional partner. We hypothesize that the sanctions should have had a negative impact on Iran's trade with the UAE, as the latter cooperated with US policies toward the Islamic Republic. By contrast, sanctions were likely to positively influence its trade with Qatar.
This article explains the Gulf diplomatic crisis and its repercussions by tracing its various stages. It also analyzes the inconsistency of US policy during the Trump administration toward this crisis and how this taught Qatar not to rely entirely on the United States to achieve security. These challenges pushed Qatar to diversify its international alliances and to create a rapprochement with countries in the region, such as Turkey, to achieve military security.
This article analyzes the involvement of American governments in the Moroccan war against the Polisario Front, from the Ford administration to the Trump presidency. The consultation of primary sources clarifies particular aspects of this involvement and indicates the role each actor has played in this conflict. The determined support of Republican administrations for the Moroccan side was due to their interests in consolidating reactionary allies in North Africa and shoring up their policies in the Middle East.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict dates back to the early 1930s. The most crucial factor that prolongs it and prevents any glimmer of hope is Israel's insistence on displacing the Palestinians from their lands and implanting Israeli citizens in their place. Motivated by inference theory, this study aims at investigating the latest wave of popular civil resistance against territorial expropriation in the town of Beita. The study shows that territorial confiscation is carried out systematically by Israeli settlers, aided by the army.
The most dramatic of military interventions is the coup d’état, and the cyclical melodrama of putsches in Sudan has placed the country on a violent path. Perhaps a major reason for an irascible officer corps to plot coups is the lack of an effective contract binding the armed forces and society. This is keeping a chokehold on the country's progress, limiting its potential. In search of a better answer, revisiting the past cycle of military interventions is critically important.
The study presented here seeks to determine whether Kuwaiti Christians feel politically and socially integrated, isolated, or even threatened in Kuwait society, as well as to explore their political attitudes and primary social demands. At the same time, the study examines the attitudes and tolerance of Kuwaiti Muslims toward the Christian minority. To that end, two questionnaires were distributed to Christians and Muslims. The results suggest that Christians feel integrated into Kuwaiti society rather than isolated or persecuted.
Environmental problems, caused by and affecting human life, are multifaceted and often interconnected with social and economic factors, and they do not recognize political borders. Like other countries, Turkey has faced severe environmental problems over the last six decades. The state's environmental policy and behavior has been shaped by a combination of economic necessity, international discourse, the EU membership process, and growing national and local awareness.